With the outbreak of COVID-19 in the world, we are paying more and more attention to our health, and masks have become a commodity that everyone has been buying. Many places have run out of masks. But there are still a lot of people who don't know what kind of mask they should wear to be useful. What is the purpose of each mask? Which mask should we choose to prevent COVID-19?
Pusponge, which is the professional Medical protective equipment manufacturer in China to tell you.
Face masks are mainly divided into four categories: Fabric masks, Disposable personal protective mask, 3ply surgical masks, Medical protective masks (N95).
Among them, the fabric mask is cleaned after each use. Other masks are disposable and cannot be worn repeatedly.
1. Fabric mask:
People usually use it more, sick people are recommended to wear it, than it can reduce the probability of spreading the virus to the surrounding environment in public places, normal people wearing it in public places can not reduce the risk of respiratory tract infection.
2. Disposable personal protective mask
This mask is not required to have a blocking effect on the blood, there is no requirement for tightness. Generally, it is impossible to guarantee the filtration of pathogenic microorganisms and dust, and it is used in routine nursing in hospitals. The main function is to block the daily cross-contamination between medical staff and patients, and there are no particularly high requirements.
3. 3Ply Surgical mask
3Ply Surgical masks are operating with body fluid and blood splash risk environments such as commonly used surgical masks, blood, body fluids through the mask pollution can be stopped the wearer, the filtration efficiency more than 70% of bacteria, but on the particle filtering efficiency is limited, and mostly rectangular design, with the facial fit as well as medical protective mask tightly.
Surgical masks are generally used in medical clinics, laboratories, operating rooms, and other high-demand environments. They are worn by medical staff when they work. The safety coefficient is relatively high, and the resistance to bacteria and viruses is relatively strong.
Surgical masks have three layers, from the outside to the inside are the waterproof layer, the filter layer, the comfort layer.
4. Medical protective masks (N95/FFP2/KN95)
Medical protective masks should have good filter material, good shape design, nose clip design. The better the mask fits into the wearer's face, the better protection it provides, preventing contaminants from entering the muzzle through the edges of the mask, especially the gap on either side of the nose wing. So when wearing a mask, the nose clip in the bridge of the nose should be pressed, the length of the mask belt should be adjusted properly so that the mask as far as possible fits the face.
When wearing medical masks, the appropriate level type should be selected according to the transmission type and risk of pollutants. Although the medical respirator with a high level of protection has a better protective effect, it also has higher respiratory resistance due to its high filter material level and good tightness. Wearing it for a long time will increase the respiratory burden and cause discomfort such as dyspnea. 3Ply surgical mask and medical protective masks can block the pollution caused by the spillage of blood and body fluids. However, if it is really necessary to block the pollution of particulate matter and pathogenic microorganisms in the air, please choose to wear a medical protective mask.
In fact, "N95" is a standard developed by the national institute for occupational safety and health (NIOSH), not a specific product name. As long as it meets the N95 standard, products that pass the review can be called "N95 mask".In line with the EU standard, we call it FFP2, in line with the Chinese standard called KN95
The biggest characteristic of the N95 mask is that it can prevent the droplets infection caused by the patient's body fluid or blood spatter. The droplets are 1 to 5 microns in diameter.
Take coronavirus as an example (COVID-19 is a kind of coronavirus), with an average diameter of about 100nm, i.e. 0.1.um, plus the transmission vector, for example, the diameter of droplets is about 1-5um, while the filtration effect of N95 on 0.3um non-oily particles is ≥95%, and N95 can achieve effective filtration.
But academician Zhong Nanshan also mentioned, N95 model respirator is used for professional respiratory protection, the common masks can protect relatively large particles of droplets.
Doctors are required to protect the standard of the mask, but ordinary people will not be in close contact with patients for a long time, wearing a disposable personal protective mask is very helpful.
What effect does each of these kinds of the mask have?
1. The fibers of fabric masks are generally very thick and cannot effectively filter small particles, so the protective effect is not ideal.
2. A disposable personal protective mask is only suitable for blocking the exhalation of pollutants from the operator's mouth and nose during general diagnosis and treatment operation, that is, it is used when there is no invasive operation. Clinical hospital personnel generally wear such a mask in their work. It can meet the needs of our ordinary people.
3. Because of its good waterproof performance and particle filtration efficiency, the surgical mask is suitable for wearing during surgery, laser treatment, isolation, dental or other medical operations, as well as the spread of diseases by air or droplets or wearing; It is mainly used by hospital operation personnel.
4. Because of its good particle filtration efficiency and effective virus filtration, the medical respirator is suitable for occupational protection when medical personnel comes into contact with patients with airborne or droplet is borne diseases or contact with infectious microorganisms.
What kind of mask should I choose for the prevention of COVID-19?
It has been explained from the interview with academician Zhong Nanshan that for the prevention of COVID-19, a Surgical mask is enough for us in daily life, no need to wear a medical protective mask. However, contact with patients already infected with COVID-19 May requires the use of medical protective masks, such as an N95.
Although N95 masks under the experimental condition are superior to surgical mask, in the clinical environment, have not found sufficient evidence of N95 masks to protect medical staff had more superiority to prevent acute respiratory infection, there is literature, the Effectiveness of N95 respirators versus surgical masks in protecting health care workers from acute respiratory infection: A systematic review and meta-analysis for those interested.